«È come un pezzo di ghiaccio entro cui brucia una fiamma» scriveva Kandinsky in una lettera del 1925, alludendo alla sua pittura. Ma lo stesso si potrebbe dire del libro che egli avrebbe pubblicato pochi mesi dopo, Punto, linea, superficie, testo capitale e rinnovatore per la teoria dell’arte e non solo per essa. Fra tutti i grandi pittori del ‘900 Kandinsky è quello che forse più di ogni altro ha sentito l’esigenza di dare una formulazione teorica ai risultati delle proprie ricerche e di allargarne il significato toccando tutti i piani dell’esistenza. Già nel 1910, quando appena cominciava ad aprirsi la strada alla terra incognita dell’astratto, Kandinsky aveva scritto Uber das Geistige in der Kunst, altro testo di grande risonanza, proclama mistico più che saggio di estetica, appello a un rivolgimento radicale della vita oltre che al rinnovamento dell’arte. Punto, linea, superficie si presenta come un’opera più fredda e tecnica, ma in realtà è l’espressione più articolata, matura e sorprendente del pensiero di Kandinsky. Alla base del libro sono i corsi che Kandinsky teneva dal 1922 al Bauhaus. In essi egli mirava soprattutto a individuare la natura e le proprietà degli elementi fondamentali della forma, perciò innanzitutto del punto, della linea e della superficie.
- See also Der Blaue Reiter
The paintings of this period are composed of large and very expressive colored masses evaluated independently from forms and lines which serve no longer to delimit them but are superimposed and overlap in a very free way to form paintings of an extraordinary force.
The influence of music has been very important on the birth of abstract art, as it is abstract by nature—it does not try to represent the exterior world but rather to express in an immediate way the inner feelings of the human soul. Kandinsky sometimes used musical terms to designate his works; he called many of his most spontaneous paintings “improvisations”, while he entitled more elaborated works “compositions”.
In addition to painting Kandinsky developed his voice as an art theorist. In fact, Kandinsky’s influence on the history of Western art stems perhaps more from his theoretical works than from his paintings. He helped to found the Neue Künstlervereinigung München (New Artists’ Association) and became its president in 1909. The group was unable to integrate the more radical approach of those like Kandinsky with more conventional ideas of art and the group dissolved in late 1911. Kandinsky then moved to form a new group The Blue Rider (Der Blaue Reiter) with like minded artists such as August Macke and Franz Marc. The group released an almanac, called The Blue Rider Almanac, and held two exhibits. More of each were planned, but the outbreak of World War I in 1914 ended these plans and sent Kandinsky home to Russia via Switzerland and Sweden.
Kandinsky’s writing in The Blue Rider Almanac and the treatise On the Spiritual In Art, which was released at almost the same time, served as both a defense and promotion of abstract art, as well as an appraisal that all forms of art were equally capable of reaching a level of spirituality. He believed that color could be used in a painting as something autonomous and apart from a visual description of an object or other form.
17 maggio 2008
Der Blaue Reiter (The Blue Rider) was a group of artists from the Neue Künstlervereinigung München in Munich, Germany. Der Blaue Reiter was a German movement lasting from 1911 to 1914, fundamental to Expressionism, along with Die Brücke which was founded the previous decade in 1905.
Wassily Kandinsky, Franz Marc, August Macke, Alexej von Jawlensky, Marianne von Werefkin, Gabriele Münter, Lyonel Feininger, Albert Bloch and others founded the group in response to the rejection of Kandinsky’s painting Last Judgement from an exhibition. Der Blaue Reiter lacked a central artistic manifesto, but was centred around Kandinsky and Marc. Paul Klee was also involved.
The name of the movement comes from a painting by Kandinsky created in 1903 (see illustration). It is also claimed that the name could have derived from Marc’s enthusiasm for horses and Kandinsky’s love of the colour blue. For Kandinsky, blue is the colour of spirituality: the darker the blue, the more it awakens human desire for the eternal (see his 1911 book On the Spiritual in Art).